In this modern era, video has become a daily consumption for education, entertainment, information, and even to earn a living. But, what exactly is that video?

Videos are electronic signals that display static images in rapid succession, usually accompanied by audio.

The use of video technology is very wide. Not limited to television alone. This technology is also used on video sharing sites, Netflix, CCTV, cellphones, cameras, and others.

There are various video formats. The most widely circulated today is the MP4 file format. Most digital devices that are commonly used in everyday life today have supported this file format for a long time.

MP4 is a video format developed by the Motion Pictures Expert Group and first introduced in 1998. The video and audio tracks in it are compressed with different encoding techniques. Video is processed with H.264 or MPEG-4 encoding, while audio is processed with AAC.

There are many other video formats. Which until now can still be found, some of which are AVI, WEBM, FLV, MOV, WMV, and MKV.

The video format itself is actually a term for containers and codecs. In simple terms, a container is a container. It contains video and audio data along with other metadata information that needs to be compressed with a codec.

Why does it need to be compressed? To reduce the file size. The raw stream is huge in size. A 2-hour RGB video loading 30 frames per second can take up to 2 TB of storage space if uncompressed. If this video is compressed with the HEVC codec, the file size can be drastically reduced to around 2.5 GB. The frame rate is still the same, the resolution has not changed, the quality is still good.

In addition to the two codecs above, there are other codecs that are also popular. Namely VP9 and AV1. VP9 was developed by Google, while AV1 is the hard work of the Alliance for Open Media. This alliance was formed from the collaboration between Amazon, Mozilla, Google, Intel, Cisco, Microsoft, and Netflix.

The implementation of VP9 as a codec can be seen through videos on the YouTube site. Android also uses this codec by default.

In addition to VP9, ​​AV1 was also adopted by YouTube but only for certain videos and only for computers capable of showing AV1 because this codec requires high hardware specifications. Users who think their computers are powerful enough can set YouTube to choose AV1 as the default codec when watching videos.

The AV1 codec has reportedly also been used by Netflix to show videos on Android devices and can be activated via the data saving option. In the future, AV1 is predicted to be the codec that replaces all existing codecs for online video streaming.
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